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Thuốc ức chế men chuyển

Dưới đây là một đoạn tiếng Anh ngắn nói về thuốc ức chế men chuyển. Bạn hãy dịch đoạn văn này sang tiếng Việt.

Angiotensin II is a very potent chemical that causes the muscles surrounding blood vessels to contract, thereby narrowing the vessels. The narrowing of the vessels increases the pressure within the vessels causing high blood pressure (hypertension). Angiotensin II is formed from angiotensin I in the blood by the enzyme angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). ACE inhibitors are medications that slow (inhibit) the activity of the enzyme ACE, which decreases the production of angiotensin II. As a result, the blood vessels enlarge or dilate, and blood pressure is reduced. This lower blood pressure makes it easier for the heart to pump blood and can improve the function of a failing heart. In addition, the progression of kidney disease due to high blood pressure or diabetes is slowed.


Thuốc hướng cơ dương tính

Dưới đây là một đoạn mô tả ngắn gọn về thuốc hướng cơ dương tính. Bạn hãy dịch đoạn văn này sang tiếng Việt.

Positive inotropic drugs improve heart function in cases of heart failure (when the heart is not pumping well enough), heart attacks and various types of heart disease. They can be divided into four types based on how they work:

  • Beta-agonists
  • Digitalis compounds
  • Phosphodiesterase inhibitors
  • Calcium-sensitizing drugs

Doctors very often prescribe one of the digitalis compounds, digoxin, for patients with heart failure. It increases the force of muscular contractions in the failing heart. Studies have shown that digoxin can improve the symptoms of heart failure in patients who are already taking diuretics (drugs that help rid the body of excess sodium salt and water) and ACE inhibitors, a type of vasodilator drug that helps widen blood vessels.

Apart from digoxin, other positive inotropic drugs should be used only for acute or end-stage heart failure because their prolonged use has been shown to worsen the disease outcome, and they may even increase the risk of death in some heart failure patients. These drugs can have a short-term benefit for some patients, but they may be harmful with long-term use.


Các bước đọc phim X quang ngực

Dưới đây là 1 đoạn mô tả ngắn gọn các bước đọc phim X quang ngực bằng tiếng Anh. Bạn hãy dịch đoạn văn này sang tiếng Việt.

Interpretation of a chest X-ray requires knowledge of anatomy and pathology and appreciation of normal appearances . A lateral film provides additional information about the nature and site of a pulmonary, pleural or mediastinal abnormality. A systematic approach is the most useful way of interpretation.

  • Check name, date and orientation of the film - anteroposterior films are usually marked as such; otherwise assume posteroanterior.
  • Lung fields: should be of equal translucency. Identify the horizontal fissure running from the right hilum to the 6th rib in the axillary line.
  • Lung apices: look specifically for masses, cavitation, consolidation, etc. above and behind the clavicles.
  • Trachea: confirm this is central, midway between the ends of the clavicles. Look for paratracheal masses, retrosternal goitre, etc.
  • Heart: check the heart is of normal shape and the maximum diameter is less than half the internal transthoracic diameter (cardiothoracic ratio). Look specifically for any retrocardiac masses.
  • Hila: the left hilum should be higher than the right. Compare the shape and density of the two hila - both should appear concave laterally. A convex appearance suggests a mass or lymphadenopathy.
  • Diaphragms: the right hemidiaphragm should be higher than the left. The anterior end of the 6th rib should cross the mid-diaphragm. If this does not reach, then hyperinflation is present.
  • Costophrenic angles: these should be well-defined, acute angles. Loss of one or both suggests pleural fluid or pleural thickening.
  • Soft tissues: note the presence of both breast shadows in female patients. Look around the chest wall for any soft tissue masses or subcutaneous emphysema, etc.
  • Bones: step closer to the film and look at the ribs, scapulae and vertebrae. Look for fractures at the edges of each bone.

Điều trị suy tim

Dưới đây là một đoạn văn tiếng Anh ngắn tóm tắt sơ lược về cách điều trị suy tim. Bạn hãy dịch chúng sang tiếng Việt.

There are three aims in treating heart failure: if possible, to remove causative factors and so reverse the condition; otherwise, to relieve symptoms and to improve survival. Examples of reversible causes include valvular disease, hypertension, anaemia, and hyperthyroidism. Symptomatic relief can be produced by the use of diuretics to relieve fluid retention, vasodilators to reduce the workload of the heart, and digitalis to increase cardiac contractility. Positive inotropic drugs other than digitalis (for example, inhibitors of phosphodiesterase type III) are not currently used in the long-term treatment of congestive heart failure, because they are associated with increased mortality. By contrast, reduction in mortality during long-term treatment of heart failure can be achieved with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, spironolactone, beta-blockers, and the combination of hydralazine with a nitrate.


Cơ trơn

Dưới đây là một đoạn tiếng Anh ngắn về cơ trơn. Bạn hãy dịch chúng sang tiếng Việt.

Smooth muscle is found in the walls of hollow organs like your intestines and stomach. They work automatically without you being aware of them. Smooth muscles are involved in many 'housekeeping' functions of the body. The muscular walls of your intestines contract to push food through your body. Muscles in your bladder wall contract to expel urine from your body. Smooth muscles in a woman's uterus (or womb) help to push babies out of the body during childbirth. The pupillary sphincter muscle in your eye is a smooth muscle that shrinks the size of your pupil.


Cơ vân

Dưới đây là phần mô tả ngắn gọn về cơ vân (Skeletal muscle). Bạn hãy dịch chúng sang tiếng Việt.

Skeletal muscles move and support the skeleton. They make up fifty percent of your body weight. There are 640 individually named skeletal muscles. A skeletal muscle links two bones across its connecting joint. When these muscles contract or shorten, your bone moves. Muscles are arranged in layers over the bones. Those nearest to the skin are called superficial muscles. Those closest to the inside of the body are called deep muscles. Skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles. These are muscles that we can consciously control.

A muscle's name usually describes its shape, location or job. Some skeletal muscles are:

  • Frontalis (forehead)
  • Deltoid (moves shoulder and upper arm)
  • Biceps (bends arm)
  • Rectus abdominis (stomach)
  • Sartorius (bends and turns leg)

Bệnh học của COPD

Dưới đây là một đoạn nói về bệnh học của COPD bằng tiếng Anh, bạn hãy dịch nó sang tiếng Việt

  • Processes important in the pathogenesis of COPD include inflammation, imbalance of proteinases and antiproteinases in the lung, oxidative stress, and apoptosis.
  • Pathologic changes characteristic of COPD are found in the central airways, peripheral airways, lung parenchyma, and pulmonary vasculature. The changes include destruction of alveolar tissue, inflammation, edema, airway mucus, and fibrosis.
  • Physiologic changes characteristic of COPD include decreased maximal expiratory airflow, lung hyperinflation, alveolar gas exchange abnormalities, and pulmonary vascular disease.
  • An increased incidence of osteoporosis, skeletal muscle dysfunction, and coronary artery disease occur in COPD, perhaps indicating a systemic component of inflammation


  1. Pathogenesis: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/p/1727-pathogenesis.html
  2. COPD: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/c/504-copd.html
  3. Inflammation: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/i/745-inflammation.html
  4. Imbalance: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/i/1728-imbalance.html
  5. Proteinase: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/p/1729-proteinase.html
  6. Lung: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/l/40-lung.html
  7. Oxidative stress: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/o/1731-oxidative-stress.html
  8. Apoptosis: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/a/1112-apoptosis.html
  9. Pathologic: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/p/801-pathologic.html
  10. Peripheral: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/p/1732-peripheral.html
  11. Parenchyma: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/p/1733-parenchyma.html
  12. Vasculature: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/v/1734-vasculature.html
  13. Alveolar: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/a/1735-alveolar.html
  14. Edema: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/e/1736-edema.html
  15. Mucus: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/m/1737-mucus.html
  16. Fibrosis: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/f/1738-fibrosis.html
  17. Physiologic: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/p/1739-physiologic.html
  18. Hyperinflation: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/h/1740-hyperinflation.html
  19. Incidence: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/i/1741-incidence.html
  20. Osteoporosis: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/o/975-osteoporosis.html
  21. Skeletal muscle: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/s/1742-skeletal-muscle.html
  22. Coronary artery disease: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/c/1743-coronary-artery-disease.html

Sự hình thành ung thư

Phía dưới là một đoạn tiếng Anh mô tả quá trình hình thành ung thư, bạn hãy dịch nó sang tiếng Việt.

Carcinogenesis, the process by which cancer develops, is a multistep process in which as many as 10 distinct mutations may have to accumulate in a cell before it becomes cancerous. The progression of genetic changes leading to cancer is best understood for colon (colorectal) cancer. Such cancers, as well as lung and breast cancer, take years or decades to develop. In colon cancer, the tumor begins as an area of inscreased cell proliferation that results from one mutation. This growth the progresses to abnormal, but noncancerous, growths called adenomas. After two or three additional mutations, a mutation of the tumor-suppressor gene p53 occurs and a carcinoma develops. The fact that so many mutations are needed for a cancer to develop indicates that cell growth is normally controlled with many sets of checks and balances. A compromised immune system is also significant component in carcinogenesis.


  1. Carcinogenesis: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/c/1712-carcinogenesis.html
  2. Cancer: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/c/1035-cancer.html
  3. Mutation: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/m/1713-mutation.html
  4. Cell: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/c/781-cell.html
  5. Cancerous: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/c/1580-cancerous.html
  6. Genetic: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/g/1714-genetic.html
  7. Colon: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/c/1003-colon.html
  8. Colorectal: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/c/969-colorectal.html
  9. Lung: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/l/40-lung.html
  10. Breast: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/b/872-breast.html
  11. Tumor: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/t/1715-tumor.html
  12. Proliferation: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/p/1716-proliferation.html
  13. Abnormal: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/a/1717-abnormal.html
  14. Noncancerous: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/n/1718-noncancerous.html
  15. Adenoma: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/a/1329-adenoma.html
  16. Tumor-suppressor gene: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/t/1719-tumor-suppressor-gene.html
  17. p53: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/p/1720-p53.html
  18. Carcinoma: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/c/1258-carcinoma.html
  19. Balance: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/b/1721-balance.html
  20. Immune system: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/i/1722-immune-system.html

Nôn và buồn nôn

Dưới đây là một đoạn miêu tả cách khai thác triệu chứng nôn và buồn nôn bằng tiếng Anh. Bạn hãy dịch nó sang tiếng Việt.

Nausea is the sensation of wanting to vomit. Heaving and retching may occur but there is no expulsion of gastric contents. There are many possible causes for these complaints. Gastrointestinal tract infections (e.g. from food poisoning by Staphylococcus aureus) or small bowel obstruction can cause acute symptoms. In patients with chronic symptoms, pregnancy and drugs (e.g. digoxin, opiates, dopamine agonists, chemotherapy) should always be ruled out. In the gastrointestinal tract, peptic ulcer disease with gastric outlet obstruction, motor disorders (e.g. gastroparesis from diabetes mellitus, or after gastric surgery), acute hepatobiliary disease and alcoholism are important causes. Finally, psychogenic vomiting, eating disorders (e.g. bulimia) and, rarely, increased intracranial pressure should be considered in patients with chronic unexplained nausea and vomiting.
The timing of the vomiting can be helpful; vomiting delayed more than 1 hour after the meal is typical of gastric outlet obstruction or gastroparesis, while early morning vomiting before eating is characteristic of pregnancy, alcoholism and raised intracranial pressure. Also ask about the contents of the vomitus (e.g. bile indicates an open connection between the duodenum and stomach, old food suggests gastric outlet obstruction, while blood suggests ulceration).


  1. Nausea: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/n/1684-nausea.html
  2. Vomit: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/v/1685-vomit.html
  3. Gastric: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/g/871-gastric.html
  4. Complaint: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/c/1686-complaint.html
  5. Gastrointestinal tract: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/g/1687-gastrointestinal-tract.html
  6. Infection: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/i/1629-infection.html
  7. Poisoning: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/p/1688-poisoning.html
  8. Staphylococcus aureus: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/s/1689-staphylococcus-aureus.html
  9. Small bowel: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/s/1690-small-bowel.html
  10. Acute: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/a/1691-acute.html
  11. Chronic: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/c/770-chronic.html
  12. Pregnancy: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/p/1692-pregnancy.html
  13. Drug: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/d/743-drug.html
  14. Digoxin: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/d/671-digoxin.html
  15. Opiate: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/o/1225-opiate.html
  16. Dopamine agonists: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/d/1693-dopamine-agonists-.html
  17. Chemotherapy: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/c/1585-chemotherapy.html
  18. Peptic ulcer: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/p/1694-peptic-ulcer.html
  19. Outlet: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/o/1695-outlet.html
  20. Gastroparesis: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/g/1696-gastroparesis.html
  21. Diabetes mellitus: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/d/1697-diabetes-mellitus.html
  22. Hepatobiliary: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/h/1698-hepatobiliary.html
  23. Alcoholism: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/a/1699-alcoholism.html
  24. Psychogenic: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/p/1700-psychogenic.html
  25. Bulimia: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/b/1701-bulimia.html
  26. Intracranial pressure: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/i/1703-intracranial-pressure.html
  27. Increased intracranial pressure: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/i/1704-increased-intracranial-pressure.html
  28. Vomitus: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/v/1705-vomitus.html
  29. Bile: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/b/1707-bile.html
  30. Duodenum: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/d/1216-duodenum.html
  31. Stomach: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/s/1310-stomach.html
  32. Ulceration: http://www.tudienykhoa.net/u/1708-ulceration.html


Dưới đây là một đoạn mô tả sơ lược về vai trò của Carbon trong cơ thể sống bằng tiếng Việt. Bạn hãy dịch nó sang tiếng Anh.

Carbon has several properties that make it particularly useful to living organisms. For one thing, it can form bonds with one to thousands of other carbon atoms to produce large molecules that can have many different shapes. Due to this property of carbon, the body can build many different organic compounds, each of which has a unique structure and function. Moreover, the large size of most carbon-containing molecules and the fact that some do not dissolve easily in water make them useful materials for building body structures.

Organic compounds are usually held together by covalent bonds. Carbon has four electrons in its outermost (valence) shell. It can bond covalently with a variety atoms, including other carbon atoms, to form rings and straight or branched chains. Other elements that most often bond with carbon in organic compounds are hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Sulfur and phosphorus are also present in organic  compounds. The other elements are present in a smaller number of organic compounds.

The chain of carbon atoms in an organic molecule is called the carbon skeleton. Many of the carbons are bonded to hydrogen atoms, yielding a hydrocarbon. Also attached to the carbon skeleton are distinctive functional groups, other atoms or molecules bound to the hydrocarbon skeleton. Each type of functional group has a specific arrangement of atoms that confers characteristic chemical properties on the organic molecule attached to it.